Mount Canobolas SCA is a uniquely rich biodiversity refuge that is only just beginning to be understood and which deserves the highest level of protection.
- It contains at least ten endemic species of plants and animals. That is, they occur nowhere else in the world and depend entirely on the SCA for their survival. This number is very likely to increase with more research (Medd and Bower 2019).
- The SCA has 15 species that are listed as threatened. All of the endemic species would also qualify as threatened if they were nominated for listing.
- Three endangered ecological communities also occur in the reserve.
- The SCA supports the only known occurrences of the endangered Mount Canobolas Xanthoparmelia Lichen Community, the only listed lichen community in Australia. It contains three species known only from Mount Canobolas and three others that are very rare nationally. It is very vulnerable to increased foot traffic on rock platforms and, of course, bike traffic.
- The vegetation of Mount Canobolas is distinctly different from anywhere else, particularly the rock plate heathlands.
- A significant number of plant species found on the mountain are at their geographical range limits.